# Malical

## What is Malical?

Malical is a powerful language for the casio fx9860 series that combines the simplicity of Casio Basic with the speed and robustness of C/Asm.

The current Malical version is 2.5, but the developers, Diameter and Wudy.F89 were working on a new update (3.0) in 2012 with more functions!

This language is faster than LuaFx, and you can program directly on the calculator. Another advantage when compared to LuaFX is that Malical program files do not need to be compiled!

Furthermore this language has the speed and robustness of C/Asm but is easier to learn! You can use some typical SDK functions like print mini, overclock, rtc, ... using this language!

## Getting Started

You can download the latest Malical build here , and you can discuss this project in this forum topic (dead link until I find a new version).

### Install Malical on the calculator

First, connect the calculator to the computer, make sure the Add-ins icon is selected, and drag and drop the the file MALICAL2.G1A to the FA-124 like the image below:

Then copy MALICAL2.G1A to your 9860 calculator.

In order to edit Malical Source files（*.mcl) on your fx9860 calc, you need to download this copy of EDIT.G1A You can also edit the source files on the computer as they are plain text.

After the installation is complete, you should see the add-ins in the menu:

### Making a Hello world! program

Open the EDIT application, and create a new document in Storage Memory with the extension .mcl, making sure the extension is lowercase. (Warning: You should not create this file in Main Memory as Malical won't find it. You should also not use uppercase for the extension, as Malical won't recognise an uppercase extension in the filename).

Enter the following code into the file:

::main
locate[1][1]
print ["Hello world!"]
waitkey[30004]
::end


(P.S.: you can reduce the font size of the editor, to allow you to view more code. Set the font size, and optionally turn off wordwrap, as shown below.)

Once your screen looks like this:

you can save the file, exit Edit and open Malical:

Run the program, the calculator will display the following screen:

Press the EXE key to exit!

First in TEST.mcl we define a main function (each Malical program uses the main function as a starting point), use the locate function (used to position the string output location on the screen), the print function (output a string) and waitkey function (waits for the keycode, in this case "30004" stands for the EXE key code). If you do not use waitkey, the program will exit immediately ( the line containing waitkey can be removed to demonstrate) and the program output will disappear and be replaced by the calculator's main menu. If using waitkey, the program waits until the user presses the EXE key.

## The "Var" statement

Malical uses the keyword var <variable table ...> (for example: var [a] [b] [c]) to declare a variable. (Some language) Malical variable type, the only type of the value of the variable. During operation variable can be assigned to any type of value. Variables declared outside the function are global variables that can be accessed by all functions, variables declared within a function can only be used during that function call. Values have the following types:NIL, STRING, NUMBER, ARRAY.

### NIL type

Malical using nil represents a null value nil is the unique value of NIL type

### STRING type

Supported operators: + ==

### NUMBER type

Floating-point number Example: 0.1321, 3.1415926 Supported operators：+ - * / ^ %（Modulo） == > >= < <= and, or, not

### ARRAY type

Data collection (array), in which each element value can be any type. Arrays use the subscript ("[" "]") to access individual variables. {Value table...} to construct.
Example:

var [a]
a = {[1][2][{}][ "mailcal"]}
print [a[0]]
# Output 1.000000


Malical's assignment operator "=" Example: a = 1 a = a+1 a = a^2 a = {} (A is an array, but there is not any element, use the array manipulation functions (such as push) before such assignment).

## Control structures

Malical offers two control structures:

### IF statement

if expr
stmt
[else
stmt]
end


The return value of expr must be a number (0 for false, non-zero is true). The else part is optional.

### WHILE statements

while expr
stmt
end
com


The requirements of the if statement

### Functions

Defined functions in the following ways in Malical

:: <Function name> <parameter list>
<Statement>
:: End 

Such as:

:: double [x]
return x*2
:: End

Return which return a value, if not followed by the expression, then do not return any value, but will end the execution of the function.

Library function is introduced to see in the Malical library.

## Examples to explain

This exemples are available in the Malical.rar package.

Many of these examples the procedure can be extended, such as clock can do better Aspect (clockwise bold, with numbers, etc.), functions in a multi-point. The procedure of drawing a line can be expanded to draw a rectangle, circle. The periodic table of elements can be coupled with the Find function. Look forward to more of your work!

### Get a key key code (key.mcl)

Programming to use the key code can use this program for, pay attention to the 1 key. Press to return to a code directly, press shift and then return to the list of code, according to the alpha and then press return 'u' code. s hift-alpha open letter lock and return the letter code.

  Printnum the introduction of detailed function in library.doc


### Square root (sqrt.mcl)

The third line, if val [gets, [1] [1]], can only enter a number, if you use eval [gets [1] [1]] can enter the expression. (Eg, input 229-8, val return 229, the eval returns 221) waitkey the role of the previous example.

### Circle (circle.mcl)

Draw a circle to waitkey.

### Character output (Chinese.mcl)

Shows usage showap (show array picture), showap specific instructions to see the library. Note that the image initialization can not be too long and will be a system error. Push function + multiple arrays can be used to implement the initialization of the big picture

### Mouse (mouse.mcl)

With memory, you can write the program: the beginning of the loop, all rub now painting, the loop ends, see the following detailed line drawing program.

### Drawing a line (draw.mcl)

1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9 a large range to move the cursor up and down a small area over 5 to determine the endpoint of a line segment L ineset storage four parameters of each straight line. The cycle began painting mouse detection button, rub the whole, with a re-draw the line, the loop ends.

### Clock (clock.mcl)

Achieve a clock. AC key launch, +, - adjust the hour / minute tune. Half if the getkey, the program is running stuck use the iskeydown here can solve the problem, and can hold the shells, do not click about. Iskeydown general use in the game. Note that this time the menu to return to the main menu is useless to write the if iskeydown menu button code] ....

### Overclocking (cpuspeed.mcl)

The F1 ~ the F6 key codes is continuous, so

while (key < 30009 or key > 30014)
key = getkey
end
cpuspeed[(key-30008)%5] 

The cpuspeed Results Shao See the end of the library. Note 2 times overclocking can not be directly four times, first the reset. (Or stuck)

### Decomposition quality factor (fact.mcl)

There is a characteristic of L, ocate before the locate [1] [1], for example the cursor to 1,1, then the print ["256"], the cursor will automatically move to 1,4, which can bring great convenience to the output.

### 3D mapping (3dfun.mcl)

Do menu can refer to this program

### Of the periodic table (periodic.mcl)

Show the usage savedisp and rcldisp, program initialization, in order to use savedisp save 5 pages (including 3 main interface, each one of the lanthanide and actinide) are operating in the Memory Lane, so screen has been displayed the initialing ..., then when needed with rcldisp show, so to avoid the repeated drawing speed, reducing programming complexity. The suffix _spe function is the operation of lanthanide and actinide.

## Other

### A comment, statement

Pound sign "#" followed by the code is a comment, malical interpretation ignores malical requires line of a statement, but you can write a statement after the semicolon ';' and then took over a statement, which can make the code more compact: If

a = 0；b = 1
if a > 5； a = 2 * a； end

### Set strong retreat

If you perform the following procedures, then the malical would have been executed can not exit, and can only be reset or pull the battery.

::main
var [i]
i = 0
while i < 5
end
::end

Forgot to play i = i + 1 is the common programming, the so malical options one can set a strong back. Write one of the set ac_break function in vitro, ac + optn strong back can be pressed when the program runs, the following

set ac_break

::main
var [i]
i = 0
while i < 5
end
::end
# You can also write here


But this option is enabled speed will be slowed down, so you can open in the programming, written after delete command.

### Attention

1. Malical does not allow variables, or Correspondence name and library functions or keywords the same, such as the following statement is illegal var [if][line][print][return][type] Sometimes prompt the wrong number of the func parameter may be the name of a library function when the variable name to use.

2 malical encountered negative system error, such as 8 is wrong, to be written as 0-8.

3.malical source file a statement by not more than 512 characters

4. On the memory There is no memory prog written procedures, such as line 1,1,5,5. Prog implementation of this statement to a point a point of painting line, slow. Malical execution to line 1,1,5,5, is painted in memory of this line, but did not appear on the screen when you run into the refresh memory function, displayed along the entire memory to the screen , speed faster.

functions are in the malical memory operations, including allclr, savedisp. Function to refresh the memory function the getkey, waitkey, putdisp.

Such as painting animation, drawing a, 2. Wipe, 3. Draw a 4. Wipe. Between 1 and 2, 3 and 4 is necessary to refresh the memory, or on the screen can not see anything

5. Questions and suggestions Visit the malical forum topic for give your suggestions. This is the alfa documentation release, under construction!